This chapter is concerned with potential moderators of child g and Fs. Like the sociodemographic analyses in Chapter 5, the comparative analyses in this chapter have the advantage of identifying conditions associated with improved or improving cognitive performance. The full sample of children who participated in this study was intentionally sociodemographically heterogenous and included girls and boys as well as subsets of three noteworthy populations, firstborns and secondborns in the same families, adopted children, and children who did and did not attend preschool. In this chapter, we assess similarities and differences between subpopulations of gender, birth order, adoption, and preschooling groups on General Intelligence and the four faculty factor scores. Three subsamples were not sufficiently large to perform multiple-group analyses of the structure of the g-and-Fs model as was done for girls and boys in Chapter 4. Rather, the goal was to assess sample differences in mean levels, and so F-tests were performed on the factor scores computed in Chapter 4 and, if significant, indicators of the factors.