In this chapter, based upon relevant research from early literacy education and related fields, I describe a strength-based vision of the literacy interests, traditions, and capabilities of preschool-aged children of Color and their families that counter long-standing deficit images. In doing so, I specifically discuss four critical elements — sociocultural resources for language and literacy learning, culturally responsive education, culturally and linguistically responsive teaching practices, and the role of teacher inquiry and reflection in transformative literacy teaching. The overall goal of the chapter is to lay out a theoretical and research foundation for the book’s subsequent chapters on the perspectives of families and teachers of Color, as well as specific pedagogical orientations and approaches for transformative literacy education.