As telescopes are basic tools for the study of astronomy or microscopes for biology, maps are fundamental for geography. By displaying spatial data graphically, maps can communicate information that is practically incomprehensible in other formats, illustrating spatial patterns and connections among locations. The value of maps goes beyond the simple visualization of data, however. We can also analyze spatial patterns to generate hypotheses or explain them. Mapping and geospatial technologies can help us model the spread of a disease across space, examine how environmental characteristics of an area influence the distribution of a particular disease, or determine how we can equitably locate healthcare facilities. Spatial statistical methods enable researchers to analyze mapped data in a scientifically rigorous manner. An understanding and appreciation of the principles of mapping and map analysis can richly serve students of the geography of health.