The conclusion draws together the major themes of the book, emphasising the main claim that being an anarchist in Spain over the turn of the century meant engaging in print culture in some manner. Print shaped the formation of the movement, disseminating its news, ideas and strategies, while publishing, distributing and reading print gave anarchists a series of common practices and structures within and between local contexts. In the absence of a formal organisation, print was thus the main site of a common anarchist culture and experience in Spain, prior to the mass expansion of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. These findings suggest that anarchism in Spain has much in common with other decentred racial movements in history, as well as contemporary mobilisations which organise around social media platforms.