Given the massive scale of the internal migration in China and the number of children affected by it, this chapter zeroes in on the issue of left-behind children. We draw on the CFPS data to look in greater detail at the extent and patterns of parental migration and their impact on the family structure and living arrangements of children. We present data on the caregivers of children in China, with special attention to the caregivers of left-behind children, who are usually the grandparents. All this information underscores the disadvantages left-behind children in China must contend with and point to the potential adverse consequences parental absence poses for the development of left-behind children and for China’s human capital and social development.