The emerging paradigm of communicative or collaborative planning has dominated theoretical discourse since the early 1980s. Rather than one coherent position there are a variety of schools that vary in their emphasis on different aspects of social and critical theory and their mixture of analyses and prescription. Critiques of communicative planning have been scarce and have largely challenged or questioned specific aspects rather than critiquing the paradigm as a whole. In the conclusion to this book, we identify broad themes that have emerged from a variety of sources and explore their relationship to collaborative planning theory. These themes do not, in our opinion, threaten to undermine collaborative planning but present questions that need to be addressed. In undertaking a dialectical engagement with such critiques, collaborative planning theory will be strengthened and made more attractive to practitioners – an audience that has expressed an interest in taking up such ideas.