Fortunately, fee bidding for architects has arisen at a time when there is a rise in the development and use of computers. Computer-aided design (CAD) is now the norm in most professional offices, but computer-aided estimating (CAE) has still to be universally adopted. The extent to which manual methods are (at present) duplicated by CAE systems has prompted Potter and Scoins (1994) to argue that this has resulted in a ‘tremendous loss of opportunity’ as they see that little attempt has been made to ‘consider the possibility and benefits of more productive ways of producing estimates offered by the computer’ (Sher 1996).