The formative history of the international advertising networks is that of the first steps towards the media in all their modernity.

In effect, it is by means of these networks, through a flow of messages of transnational dimensions, that a permanent, daily and generalised connection is developed between particular societies and cultures, local, regional and national. Hence the primary confrontations between the public cultures belonging to the particular territories of the nation-state, and the cultures of the private sector and the market, with their universalising tendencies and ambitions. Also, the prime tensions between scattered popular cultures and the centralised mass culture which is produced industrially.