In the fourteenth century, English kings’ involvement of subjects’ resources and fortunes in the pursuit of royal claims in Scotland and France had led to a renewed emphasis on their personal duty to lead armies, displaying the strength of their resolve to defend subjects against the oft-proclaimed malice of foreigners, and to secure a just peace. Edward I, Edward II and Edward III went abroad at the head of armies. Richard II and Henry IV both led invasions of Scotland, and had their intentions of invading France affirmed on occasion in parliament.