Richard duke of York’s elaborate and widespread propaganda campaign in the winter of 1451–2 gave the court ample warning of rebellion. In September 1451 he wrote to towns and individuals in Norfolk requesting support for his aims. In November, according to later indictments, his chamberlain Sir William Oldhall was inciting uprisings in eastern England. 1 Tense reactions at court are reflected in a letter which the duke wrote to Henry VI from his castle at Ludlow on 9 January 1452. Informed that, as a result of defamations, Henry was displeased with him, he had declared himself a true liegeman to Reginald Boulers, bishop of Hereford, and the earl of Shrewsbury. He had asked them to report to Henry his willingness to swear his loyalty on the Sacrament in the presence of two or three lords, if Henry cared to send them to Ludlow. 2