A. There are a certain number of minimal radicals1 which can never associate with an object-prefix nor with a ‘Passive’ extension. For a majority of such verbs no entailment occurs, but others may be followed by a SsN of C1. 16-18 and entailment Eiv is then usually2 possible. The fact that an entailment does not occur is indicated by the abbreviation E-or P0. So far 27 radicals have been encountered that fall into this category:-

-amk-, Awake3; -ap-, Swear (an oath); -bong’o-, Bend over; -ch-, Dawn; - chach-, Ferment; -chamb-, Clean oneself after defecation; -didimi-, Sink to the bottom; -f-, Die; -fuk-(?), Emit smoke; -j-, Come; -kaw-, Delay; - kimw-, Be disgruntled; -ku-, Mature; -law-, Get up early in the morning; - me-, Sprout (of vegetation); -nep-, Be pliable; -nun-, Be sulky; -pe-, Be fully mature; -pw-, Ebb (of the tide); -sa-(rare in simple form), Remain over; -sene-, Be blunt; -tot-, Be soaked; -tun-, Become more (accumulate); -vi-(?), Fail to mature; -w-, Become; -wang-, Practise witchcraft; -zind-, Stick fast

Of these there is some doubt about -fuk-and -vi-since one informant insisted that restricted object-prefixes could occur. With the exception of -ap-, -bong’oand -me-none of these radicals may be associated with a ‘Stative’ extension (4, see Part II). Some of these verbs may be followed by SsN’s (nouns),

1. Followed by adjuncts or silence:-

-ch-, -chach-, -ka-, -law-, -pe-, -pw-, -sa-, -sene-, -wang-, -zind-

nimelawa mapema kwa safari…., I have got up early for the journey chakula kimechacha kwa sababu…., The food has fermented because..... mwanangu anakua kabisa, My child is really growing up maji yamekupwa, The tide is out

2. Followed by SsN’s of C1. 1-15, adjuncts or silence:-

-f-, -kimw-, -tot-, also -fuk-(?)

-f-can usually be followed only by four SsN’s: ganzi, Numbness; kiu, Thirst; maji, Water; njaa, Hunger. Since no shift in sequence is possible and since there appears to be reluctance to interposing any item between the verb and the noun, it might be preferable to regard the sequence as constituting a ‘phrasal-verb’1. -fmay be followed by a much larger series of SsN’s when these are incorporated in an adjunct-phrase introduced by kwa:-

alikufa kwa (ndui, ugonjwa usiojulikana, woga, jeraha zake, etc.) He died from (smallpox, an unknown disease, fear, his wounds, etc.)

-tot-is usually followed by maji or bahari, Sea and here again there is something to be gained by regarding this as a phrasal-verb:-

The Standard dictionary entry -tot-macho, Be deprived of sight was not acceptable to my informants.