In reconstructing the history and evolution of domestic animals, interdisciplinary studies relating archaeozoological materials with iconography, historical texts, genetics, animal production data, contemporary ethnography, and linguistics are essential to create a rich and convincing description of the past and its links with present production systems. Results from these different disciplines are, however, not always easily synthesized. This is partly because sampling strategies are generally not co-ordinated, leading to patchy availability of data. However, the different styles of data presentation and even types of argumentation are often difficult for disciplinary scholars to integrate. Nonetheless, recent developments especially in molecular genetics have made the process of synthesis essential if coherent models are to be developed.