The Greater Berlin of the 1930s, as described by Leyden (1933) and Louis (1936), had a structure that accorded with all three of the most familiar urban models. It followed the Burgess model to the extent that a pattern of concentric zones could be discerned (Burgess 1925), based however on the sequence of development outwards from the centre, not on social-area differentiation, as in the initial Chicago example. The ideas of Hoyt also appeared to be confirmed by the existence of sectors of contrasting economic status radiating from the inner city (Hoyt 1939), traversing the concentric growth rings and giving a marked East End/West End effect. Finally, although there was only one predominant urban core, such a large urban area necessarily had subsidiary nuclei (a characteristic enhanced by events since 1945), so that the multiple-nuclei ideas of Harris and Ullman also apply (Harris and Ullman 1945).