The introduction of the National Curriculum in 1989 formalised the position of science in primary schools and many aspects of biological and physical science are now part of the core curriculum. Learning about many of these is often best achieved through practical activities and Science in the National Curriculum (DFE, 1995) promotes an experimental and investigative approach to the teaching and learning of all aspects of science. As a consequence, practical science activities in primary schools are often open ended and, to help them learn about scientific methods, pupils should also be given opportunities to carry out investigations that they have planned themselves. Clearly, such practical and investigative approaches must not put pupils at unnecessary risk and when planning science activities teachers need to consider their duty of care and minimise the possibility of pupils coming to any harm. Additionally, the National Curriculum requires teachers to develop pupils’ safety awareness by providing opportunities to recognise risks and act appropriately. Clearly, this can only be done if pupils participate in activities that involve some degree of risk. This chapter discusses these contrasting demands in the light of teachers’ legal liabilities and suggests approaches that could be used when formulating a science safety policy and a curriculum to develop pupils’ safety awareness.