Punctuation marks help to specify meaning, indicate emphasis, and signal the representation of speech, quotations and intonation. The conventions of punctuation are therefore not simply a useful addition to writing but an essential part of meaning. In English, the following thirteen items are the most commonly used features of punctuation:


The apostrophe which is represented by ’ is used to indicate 1 possession:

the teacher’s plan (singular) the teachers’ plan (plural) the children’s response someone’s shoe a home of one’s own

The apostrophe is not used for possessive pronouns:

The house is his not hers. Whose is it? It is theirs.