Within ten years of the Boxer Uprising, China experienced an ethnic revolution pitting the Han Chinese against the Manchus. This chapter will begin by discussing the military and naval reforms following the Boxer Uprising. It will then look at the impact of military modernization on the 1911 Revolution, highlighting the Han-dominated “New Army” and their role in overthrowing the Manchus. Arguably, this revolution inaugurated almost forty years of intermittent civil wars to determine which Han dynasty would fill the power vacuum left by the Qing’s collapse. This era ended in 1949, when the Chinese Communists took power.