This book has been set against a background of increasing pressures on governments to enhance the relevance of policies towards the natural resources sector and the efficiency of their implementation. Most states have been pursuing varying combinations of three broad approaches:

1 focusing largely on improving their own capabilities in policy formulation, implementation and service provision;

2 ceding responsibility for certain services and management functions to private commercial or non-profit organisations, which in turn implies a more laissez faire policy context;

3 relying increasingly on alliances with private commercial or non-profit organisations which allow the comparative advantage of all partners to be exploited.