Throughout this book, different methods of assessing students are described. Among these are teacher-made pencil and paper tests, standardized achievement tests, performance tests, and portfolios. This chapter emphasizes the type of objective pencil and paper tests that are used to evaluate students. Other forms of classroom assessment, including teacher observations and performance tests are more likely to be used in formative evaluations to assist teachers in the modification of course material. These are also the appropriate methods to use in making decisions about whether or not to provide more instruction before moving to another topic.