ABSTRACT

The Iron Age remains one of the most dynamic periods of Mediterranean history. Individuals travelled further than ever before, with various peoples settling along foreign shores throughout the Sea, not just the central or eastern regions as during the Bronze Age. Greeks and Phoenicians, in particular, established themselves on all coasts, from North Syria and Cilicia to France and Spain, from North Africa to the coasts of the Adriatic. This is the age of the dissemination of the alphabet from Phoenicians to Greeks, and the subsequent development of alphabetic scripts based upon the PhoenicoGreek model by populations throughout the Mediterranean. This is also the period that generated the so-called Orientalizing Movement, in which other aspects of Near Eastern cultures, particularly material goods and religious ideas, inspired and motivated the Greeks and others in their own products and practices. The volume and variety of items traded throughout the Mediterranean, via long distance and more localized routes, expanded to unprecedented levels.