Anyone looking at the state of the world in the twenty-first century should be struck by the remarkable prosperity that nearly everyone in developed nations enjoys. However, it is easy to take that remarkable prosperity for granted because it is so much a part of everyday life for so many people. Even people of modest means (in developed economies) take it for granted that if they are watching television and want a snack, they can just go to get something from the refrigerator, and it is a bit of an aggravation if that particular something the person might want is not in the refrigerator and the person has to get in the car and drive to the store to get it (taking for granted, meanwhile, the television, the refrigerator, the car, and the store with its substantial inventory). Two centuries ago, everyone except for the wealthy had to struggle just to obtain enough calories to survive, and that remains true in less-developed economies today.