The development of the ESDP has been well documented by Faludi and Waterhout (2002), and the power struggles over maps in the process have been investigated by Jensen and Richardson (2004). In this chapter, particular attention will be given to the question of how cartographic representations are constructed in transnational spatial policy processes, and how they are used to communicate spatial policy. In doing so, the analysis will draw on the framework provided by John Forester (1989) on power imbalances in planning processes (see Figure 2.1). In addition, there are a number of aspects directly relevant to the analysis of the ‘cartographic outputs’. These will be investigated by analysing the graphical and linguistic structures of the illustrations according to the dimensions set out in the conceptual framework in Boxes 4.1 and 4.2. The identiﬁcation of distortions in communication through ‘maps’ that were produced in the ESDP process might help to avoid similar problems in future transnational co-operation processes. This can help to make best use of spatial images in supporting European planners to work across their differences in the understanding of planning.