This chapter begins with an overview of education and the linguistic make-up of schools in the United Kingdom (UK). The implications for teachers of a diverse linguistic make-up in their classes are investigated through a series of case studies drawn from research with mainstream teachers in primary schools. Educational policy for bilingual pupils in the UK is then discussed to help in understanding the diversity of response and the range of teacher concerns. These concerns are summarised at the end of the chapter and followed by a photocopiable set of questions to enable teachers to collect information about their pupils’ linguistic, cultural and educational background. The chapter concludes with a set of targets for the teacher who has one or more bilingual children in the classroom.