The history of modern music therapy-often considered starting around the middle of the twentieth century-has been philosophically rooted mostly in social science concepts: The therapeutic value of music is derived from the various emotional and social roles it plays in a person’s life and a society’s culture, based on the accepted uses, norms, and functions for the arts. Music has been given the age-old roles of emotional expression; of creating and facilitating group association, integration, and social organization; of symbolically representing beliefs and ideas; and of supporting educational purposes.