Most psychological approaches and techniques of psychology purport that they transcend culture and that their delineations of solutions to problems are universally applicable (Corsini & Wedding, 1995; Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). As mentioned earlier, there are people who question these basic assumptions (e.g., Ramseur, 1991). Helms (1985, 1986) wrote that divergence in attitudes, beliefs, and coping strategies can be a source of dissonance between the mental health professional and the client. What the European American counselor values, considers priorities, defines as problems, and considers relevant may be different from what the nonEuropean client values and considers relevant. It is to the White counselor's advantage to claim that his or her therapeutic approaches transcend culture: This confirms the universality of the European approaches; this allows the therapist to continue using the assumptions, models, and approaches that he or she has previously used; and this diminishes the need to learn more about other cultures and approaches. To admit our limitations would result in exposing the inadequacies of counseling on a therapeutic level, as well as reveal the racist political, economic, and social aspects of counseling that are the result of, and the reasons for, these therapeutic limitations.