CHILE AND THE UNITED STATES HAVE A LONG HISTORY of engagement, starting in the nineteenth century when two ambitious nascent powers competed in power projection and development of rival naval capabilities. These interstate issues were well understood by policy-makers on both sides, and they avoided outright confrontation. Even as Chile lost the ability to compete with the United States, Chilean policy-makers found ways to advance Chilean national interests without creating a crisis in the relationship. Until the 1960s, therefore, the bilateral relationship was characterized by tense competition and limited but growing cooperation.