From New Labour Policy Action Team 16’s (PAT 16) report on ‘Learning Lessons’ onwards, there has been increasing government recognition of the importance of training – and retraining – professionals and decision makers as well as communities and their representatives, if regeneration and neighbourhood renewal programmes are to be effective. PAT 16 concluded that in addition to their finding that ‘community leaders do not get the support and encouragement they need’ it was also the case that ‘professionals are often not equipped to operate effectively in poor neighbourhoods; and that civil servants lack a full understanding of the communities they are trying to influence’ (SEU 2000: 6). The answer lay in improved basic training to make it more relevant, together with improved opportunities for people with community experience to obtain access to these types of professional jobs; there should also be greater emphasis upon ‘promoting cross-sectoral thinking and working’ (SEU 2000). As the Learning Curve also recognized, partnership working with stakeholders places particular demands on professionals and this means ‘helping residents, civil servants, practitioners and organisations gain the skills and knowledge they need to deliver real change’ (NRU 2002: 1). Since then, there have been a number of initiatives to strengthen the capacities of the capacity-builders as well as to promote capacity-building and active citizenship within communities, including ‘Futurebuilders’ An Investment Fund for Voluntary and Community Sector Public Service Delivery, 2004, ‘ChangeUp’ the Capacity Building and Infrastructure Framework for the Voluntary Sector, and the Home Office Civil Renewal Unit’s programme for Active Learning for Active Citizenship (ALAC) (Home Office 2004).