Like most countries, India and Pakistan moved away from extensive state

ownership and regulation of the economy at the end of the twentieth cen-

tury. Before the 1990s, India and Pakistan’s economic development philo-

sophies contrasted markedly. But each exhibited high levels of state intervention in the economy. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, governments

of India and Pakistan were attempting to exit the economy. But patterns of

actual economic reform have differed considerably.