In what ways do these different therapeutic uses of mindfulness affect mental health? It is clear from Chapter 3 that different approaches have different kinds of aims. None are necessarily identical with the intentions that motivated the traditional practices discussed in Chapter 1. In many cases, goals that were quite speci®c, problem-orientated, and measurable have been chosen as the rationale of the mindfulness-based treatment. Conventional wisdom has it that psychological treatments, like physical ones, are used to treat mental disorders, such as major depression, obsessional compulsive neurosis, or schizophrenia. People diagnosed as suffering from depression must need an antidepressant or a speci®c psychological treatment for the condition.