In the Introduction we stated that the present status of the affirmative action debate was similar to a gold miner’s clogged screen. As the clogged filter prevents the miner from finding gold, the loggerhead affirmative action debate impedes society from achieving greater liberty, equality, and justice for all of its citizens. To clear the affirmative action debate filters; we must understand the antecedents of the policies and programs that exist today. Part II of this study, will explore temporal concerns, that is, why we are examining seemingly incompatible eras in the affirmative action debates. This will be followed by an examination of the foundation of con­ temporary affirmative action in South Africa and the United States. Lastly, we discuss to the current period in the debates.