A man.d.ala is a Tibetan religious image that is used for meditation. In the 1920s

the psychoanalyst Carl Jung discovered man.d.alas and began using them as

part of his therapy. He had his patients draw pictures, and he would analyze

them to find out their unconscious thoughts. In Jung’s sense of the word, a mandala

is any circular image with symbols, from round windows in medieval cathedrals to

Navajo sand paintings. Jung’s interpretation has nearly taken over from the original

meaning. Real Tibetan man.d.alas are interesting, complex objects, and a great deal

has been written about them. I have listed some books at the end of this volume; but

the subject here is mandalas without the Sanskrit diacritical marks-that is, man-

dalas as they are understood in the West.