Rock 'n' roll certainly brought pain to some of the stars of show business in the 1950s. It threatened their livelihoods and offended their artistic sensibilities. Frank Sinatra, the greatest American pop singer of the twentieth century, disliked it intensely, at least at first: "Rock 'n' roll is the most brutal, ugly desperate, vicious form of expression it has been my misfortune to hear," he once said.