The aim of this chapter is to undertake a detailed analysis of some important aspects of the history of Dura Europos so as to better understand the city’s history in light of developments on the middle Euphrates and in Mesopotamia and Palmyra during the period in which the Romans controlled it. A review of the important evidence from Dura Europos from the Parthian and Roman periods is undertaken to illustrate continuity and change at the city as Roman power in the Near East developed from the first century BC. The ongoing importance of Hellenistic institutions at Dura Europos, together with the flourishing of the city in the Parthian period, forms part of the analysis. The remains of Dura’s prosperity in the first and second centuries AD demonstrate the city’s connections with the cities and regions which came under Roman control and influence in the first and second centuries AD.