Perhaps the most extensive experience in using ICTs for development is in the field of education. The first applications of mass media to extend the range of education used radio in the 1950s and 1960s for nonformal education such as basic literacy for adults, and for formal education, either by teaching children directly in classrooms where teachers were unqualified, or by instructing the teachers themselves, so that they could better teach the students. In the 1970s, educators also began to use television in countries where it was available, such as American Samoa, India, and Côte d’Ivoire (Schramm, 1977). Today, radio is still used extensively for distance education in many developing countries. Televised courses may enable adults to study at home, whereas Internet-based courses offer the possibility for students to interact with each other and the instructor.