Latin America has not been very successful in remodeling its productive systems in order to reinsert itself in the new, globalized economy in a way such that it could take off in search of development in the turn of the century, at the economic as well as the social level. Once again it has become evident that there can be no simple reproduction of the stages central countries traversed. Economic, fi nancial, and state reforms have been legion: No Latin American country, alas, including Cuba, has refrained from trying new economic paths. But the process of capital accumulation has not resumed with enough vigor and a clear direction, even after the overcoming of the dreadful fi nancial crises that hit the subcontinent in 1990s. Nor have the Latin American countries been able really to take advantage of the positive, expansive condition of the global economy after the turn of the century. The prolonged crisis and fi nally death of “national developmentalism” has not meant that a successor with the same strength and legitimacy has thus far been found. The proposals of neoliberalism have by and large resulted in failure, harsh social conditions, relative stagnation, and backwardness.