In this chapter the social and cultural factors that form the contexts for interactions between adults and children are focused upon. Every culture provides a variety of settings in which children grow and learn, such as schools, cultural organizations, community activities and home environments. Within each of these settings, children engage in a variety of activities that encourage and support their learning. Reasons for the variations that occur in the participation of children and young people in these activities have to do with a range of cultural factors, including the beliefs and values of parents and teachers, and pedagogical culture. The chapter uses examples drawn from homes and schools to illustrate connections between cultural, pedagogic contexts and children’s participation in activities. Connections are to be found at various levels in cultural systems at home and at school, where beliefs, values and customary practices shape the environment in which children grow and learn.