A comparative historical study of the rise and ﬂourishing of the Jewish state can shed some signiﬁcant light on Israel. Such comparative work has been uncommon. We could examine Israel in six comparative contexts:
• The rise of Israel can be compared to the fate of other minorities in the Ottoman Turkish empire. The question is why were the Jews the only minority to obtain a powerful state when other minorities (Lebanese Christians, Armenians and Kurds) seemed better situated in 1917?