Although competence in general as discussed in Chapter 7 applies to any area in psychology and counseling, each area requires specialized competencies that allow ethical practice, research, or teaching to occur. Th is chapter discusses those specifi cs. In addition, specialty areas like working in schools, in forensics, in industrial or organizational settings each require specifi c knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values. Anyone wishing to venture into the specifi c settings will fi nd it ethically necessary to develop those qualities that make competent service possible. However, overarching all areas is the need to develop knowledge about individual diff erences. You simply cannot treat, supervise or do research with an aging Japanese population the same way you might work with White, young, gang members. Everyone is not the same and for too long psychology treated white, middle-class males as the standard against which everyone was judged. Consequently, this section begins with a rather detailed discussion of individual diff erences since they’re so critical in every role that counselors and psychologists play.