Drugs that act on the central nervous system produce a variety of effects that directly or indirectly affect mood, behavior, and sensory perception. Many psychotropic therapeutic medications have little to no abuse potential, whereas others present a risk of abuse that is of concern
to the medical community. Usually, psychotherapeutics that have little abuse potential are ones that either do not produce a perceptible change upon acute administration, or have only negative/aversive side effects. For instance, medications used to treat depression, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) do not produce immediate intoxicating effects, and therefore pose minimal abuse risk. Neuroleptics, a class of psychotherapeutics used to treat schizophrenia, are known for their negative side effects and therefore also pose no risk for abuse. In fact, patients prescribed neuroleptics typically have low rates of medication compliance due to the negative side effects. erapeutics that produce positive subjective effects upon acute administration are more likely to have abuse potential. Examples of such drugs include opiates, which are used for pain relief, and stimulants, which are used for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). When taken as prescribed, the abuse liability of such medications is minimized, but taking larger amounts than prescribed can increase their abuse potential. In addition, the intoxicating effects of these medications depend in part upon the route by which they are administered. For example, oral use is generally associated with lower abuse potential than intranasal or intravenous use.