Without the dissemination of popular music via personal audio and visual carriers, such as audio cassette tapes and compact discs and music video cassette tapes and compact discs, there would be no music industry in Vietnam beyond live shows (which are on the wane, as concluded in the last chapter). Issues and narratives that pertain to the production and use of these musical artifacts tell us much about Vietnam’s economic and technological growth during the last decade of the twentieth century and into the twenty-fi rst century, including the role of piracy and use (and abuse) of copyright.