As we indicated in Chapter 6, the primary method of obtaining information in experimental-type design is measurement. Here we define measurement as the translation of observations into numbers. This action process creates variables from lexical concepts (operationalization) that then are ordered and examined. Through measurement, concepts (defined as abstractions of observed or experienced phenomena) can be reduced into their basic elements or indicators and benchmarks, quantified, and empirically examined. Thus, measurement involves both conceptual and operational or empirical considerations.