And your education! Is not that also social, and determined by the social conditions under which you educate, by the intervention, direct or indirect, of society, by means of schools, etc.?

Karl Marx & Frederick Engels (1848/1977, p. 55)

When I taught at Berkeley High School in California, administrators and teachers there, myself included, oft en referred to a phenomenon called the zip code eff ect. Th is eff ect was a crude approximation for relative levels of academic achievement at Berkeley High. Graduation rates, grade point averages, discipline rates, dropout rates, and standardized test scores could be relatively accurately predicted by a simple analysis of where in the city of Berkeley a particular child lived.