This ﬁnal chapter looks to the future directions that the global food and agricultural institutions described in this book might take. They were founded between 30 and 60 years ago. In the meantime, many signiﬁcant changes have taken place in the world in which they operate. It is understandable, therefore, that questions are increasing being asked about their continuing relevance, and the need for reform, to face the challenges of the twenty-ﬁrst century. Independent external evaluations have been undertaken of three of the institutions (FAO, IFAD, and the CGIAR). A major joint evaluation of WFP was carried out by three of its prominent donor countries in the early 1990s. While no independent external evaluation has taken place of the World Bank, a large number of views have been expressed about the future directions it should take, increasingly in recent years. These evaluations and views provide rich material for identifying the problems now faced by these institutions, the future directions they might take, and how they might cooperate in the future.