As described in Chapter 2, historically some (Dewey, 1898; Thorndike, 1922) argued that initial mathematics education should emphasize counting, whereas others (e.g., Piaget et al., 1960; Piaget & Szeminska, 1952; B. Russell, 1919) contended that counting was a rote skill until logical foundations were acquired (for discussions, see Clements, 1984a; Clements, 1984c; Wright et al., 2006). Even recent accounts treated counting, at least verbal counting, as a rote skill (Fuson, 1992a; H. P. Ginsburg, 1977).