In Anatolia, the Late Chalcolithic roughly equates with the fourth millennium BC, with matters on chronology, there are several variations on the timespan and nomenclature. Evidence from Kuyunjik, the high mound at Nineveh, and at Tell Brak, points to a discontinuity in local Late Chalcolithic traditions. The Late Chalcolithic period in Anatolia has been dominated by studies on the phenomenon referred to as the Uruk expansion. After the formative period of the Late Chalcolithic, eastern Anatolia continued to play a pivotal role in the character of the Kura-Araxes. The absence of fortifications, weapons, or violent destructions suggests that Mesopotamians and Anatolians lived in relative harmony for several centuries, estimated to be between 300 and 500 years. Of all the Anatolian regions in the Late Chalcolithic period, developments in central Anatolia, in particular the north central region, are difficult to comprehend, a situation that no doubt owes much to its geographical circumstance a cusp region open to influences from neighbors.