When selecting a research question in performance analysis, the student will go through a process of selecting candidate areas of interest, before choosing one of these and turning it from an area of general interest to a specifi c research question. The student will investigate previous literature in the area to approach the research topic being well informed about theoretical and methodological aspects. This is the fi rst stage of the research process and a considerable amount of project effort depends on directions set at this point. If the student selects a poor research question, this might not be detected until they are drawing conclusions and recommendations, assessing where our knowledge of the subject area is as a result of the study. This chapter is made up of two broad parts: the selection of a research area of interest, and reviewing previous research in the area.