When communism broke down, two conflicting voices were heard within the study of regime change. From one corner of the ring the optimists predicted the coming of a glorious democratic future. Francis Fukuyama’s (1992) thesis on The End of History and the Last Man captured most headlines. Fukuyama’s argument was both lucid and complex, emphasizing the longue durée only. His claim was that a Hegelian ‘struggle of recognition’ was pushing the countries of the world toward liberal democracy in an almost teleological manner. However, Fukuyama’s assertion was quickly translated into a short-term notion about the inexorable advent of democratic regime change.