As we saw in the previous chapter, “protecting refugees” is an important part of international politics. UNHCR is the main international organization that works to protect refugees, and it spells out what it expects of countries in its 1951 Convention. This chapter examines these expectations more closely and considers the controversy over whether countries are meeting them. This controversy has been especially heated with regard to the granting of asylum by OECD countries, and so this chapter tends to focus on that aspect of refugee protection.