This chapter elaborates the intimations of a historical materialist philosophical anthropology found in Marx's work. These intimations are express about the dehumanising, alienating character of the capitalist mode of life as well as in remarks about the historico-cultural constitution of the human senses. It is grounded in an understanding of human biology as permitting the flourishing of myriad modes of human life and allows the identification of dehumanising modes of activity of the kind characterised by Marx as alienating. A species capable of enjoying the 'good' life, as opposed to the 'mere' life that is available to other animals, humans need a political and ethical education. Marx conception of humanity was, radically egalitarian, in the sense that he deemed the potential for eudaimonia to inhere in all humans without exception. Aristotle's account of human activity was intended to convey the distinctive character of the human species; it will form an important connecting thread in my argument about citizenship and thinking.