Esposito and Smith (2006) use the phrase ‘from reluctant teacher to empowered teacher-researcher’ in their paper to describe participants involved in action research. Their phrase could also be used most appropriately to describe the benefits of lesson study. According to Calhoun (2002) action research is about seeking to understand

and acting on the best we know. As professionals, teachers want to grow – to develop new insights, skills and practices (Elliott and Chan, 2002). Stigler and Hiebert (1999) are equally positive about lesson study – they argue that teachers need to learn how to analyse practice – both other teachers’ practice and their own. This is the benefit of lesson study. Teachers from a single school collaborate on planning single lessons, which are then observed and critically reviewed (Watanabe, 2002).