There are an increasing number of learning modes available for teachers to use, ranging from computer-based simulations and on-line learning, through problem-based learning and inquiry to cooperative learning (see Box 6.1). Yet the emphasis on standards and accountability, especially No Child Left Behind (2001) legislation in the USA and the National Literacy Strategy and the National Numeracy Strategy in the UK, is having a restrictive emphasis on the modes of instruction that teachers use. Teachers are now required to be more directive and to provide activities that directly engage students. According to Webb and Vulliamy (2006) this has led to a narrowing of the curriculum in the UK and a further de-professionalization and deskilling of teachers.